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Дубляж – это камень преткновения для кинолюбителей, кинопрофессионалов и, как ни странно, для изучающих иностранные языки.
Дубляж, или дублирование, которое является по сути полной заменой иностранной речи актеров на другой язык, вызывает огромное количество нареканий со стороны многих, несмотря на то, что, казалось бы, значительно, упрощает процесс просмотра и восприятия фильмов.
Дублирование не стоит путать с закадровым переводом и озвучанием.
Закадровый перевод (voice-over) – это не замена иностранной речи на другой язык, а фактически «накладывание» переведенного текста поверх оригинальной звуковой дорожки, и может осуществляться как одним актером, так и командой профессиональных актеров (от двух человек и больше). Закадровый перевод является более бюджетным средством передачи смысла, нежели дубляж, поэтому преимущественно используется для сериалов, программ и тех фильмов, которые не выходят в кинотеатральный прокат.
Озвучивание, или озвучание (более узкоспециальный термин), - это процесс создания окончательного варианта фонограммы фильма или передачи, где элементы фонограммы делятся на музыку, шумы и речь.
Дублирование с точки зрения кинопроизводителей – процесс весьма затратный ввиду многих причин. Во-первых, текст фильма необходимо перевести для того, чтобы он мог быть дублирован. Но «чистый» перевод – это лишь первоначальный вариант, предподготовительный этап, который будет переработан еще много раз перед тем, как мы увидим (услышим?) фильм в его конечном варианте. Следующим звеном является укладывание текста, то есть группирование фраз таким образом, чтобы они совпадали по длине с оригинальными и ложились на артикуляцию актеров.
Далее проводится кастинг на основные роли, в процессе которого выбираются актеры, чьей тембральный окрас сходен с тембром голоса оригинального исполнителя. Впрочем, иногда для поднятия рейтинга фильма на разные роли берут известных медийных личностей, зачастую не имеющих к профессиональному кинематографу никакого отношения.
Каждого актера записывают отдельно от других; заключительным этапом этого трудоемкого процесса является работа звукорежиссера: сведение и перезапись.
Для страстных кинолюбителей дублированный фильм – наименее предпочтительный вариант. Они считают, что дубляж так или иначе коверкает смысл фильма и искажает игру актеров (кто-то сказал «Для того, чтобы дублировать МэрилСтрип, нужно быть по меньшей мере МэрилСтрип»), поэтому каждый уважающий себя киноман предпочтет приобрести фильм с оригинальной звуковой дорожкой (пусть и с субтитрами).
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